Sunday, May 17, 2020

reconstruction Essay - 1315 Words

WRITING ASSIGNMENT Nr. I North won the Civil War. Throughout the American Civil War, The North proved to be victorious to The South. The Union had a power and wealth, better economy and technology. There were many key factories: the money, the resources, the commanders, the manpower, the skill and determination and the most important the advanced weapons. Civil War was considered the first modern War in the World, because of new advanced weapons- rifled muskets, that cold reach 300 yards. Although, both sides had access to these weapons, North had the larger quantity. Union solders, were free people and some of Confederate solders were slaves, so the did not really care to fight. What were they defeating: slavery? The period†¦show more content†¦In May of 1865 a new president A. Johnson unveiled his Reconstruction plan. Johnson gave pardons and restored property rights to former landowners if they pledged loyalty to the Union and the Constitution. Johnson’s nothing to say about black people rights after the war. 1865 the southern states revised the slave codes into what became known as the black codes. This practically stripped blacks of equal rights and justice. In 1867 Radical Reconstruction began. Under this plan the South was divided into five districts (excluding Tennessee). General headed each of the districts. The main goal of the leaders of the state was to increase voter registration of blacks, and to see that white c confederates did not get back in to the office. During this time many things were done to free blacks in the South. The 13th amendment prohibited slavery in 1865. The Freedmen’s Bureau was created to assist black people with things such as education and housing. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 defined what civil rights were entitled to all citizens. The 14th amendment ratified in 1868 prohibited states from violating the rights of the citizens. 15th amendment in 1870 gave freedmen a right to vote. Black people still had no choice but to work for white landowners, except for wages, which were wery low. Whites wanted to keep the old system of labor and physical punishment. African AmericansShow MoreRelatedCrime Scene Reconstruction1438 Words   |  6 PagesKristin Waters Crime Scene Reconstruction ENC 1102-154 Reconstructing a crime scene takes a lot of effort from experienced law enforcement, medical examiners, and criminalists. All of these professionals give unique perspectives to develop a crime-scene reconstruction. Forensic scientists also play a vital role in helping to reconstruct the crime scene. They use the crime-scene reconstruction to show events that occurred prior to, during, and after a crime was committed. (Saferstein, 2009) Read MoreReconstruction Of Reconstruction And Reconstruction1031 Words   |  5 PagesReconstruction what is it?What does it mean to reconstruct? Is it possible to reconstruct nowadays? Reconstruction started in 1865 and ended in 1877.Reconstruction took place mostly in the south. Reconstruction was created to help fix the problems in the new union after slavery, but sadly didn t end well causing an all white government into power and failing the union. New economic,political and industrial growth was being made. New job opportunities were being m ade for the people and former blackRead MoreReconstruction Goals : Reconstruction And Reconstruction1296 Words   |  6 PagesReconstruction Goals Reconstruction started in 1865 after the war was coming to an end and completed in 1877. It Is the process by which federal government controlled the former Confederate states and the conditions for their readmission to the union. Abraham Lincoln was our president at the time and could not form a treaty with the defeated government. After the emancipation, thousands of freedmen left their plantation to find a new life without being owned and forced to work. This began theRead MoreReconstruction : The Failure Of Reconstruction1529 Words   |  7 PagesReconstruction: By: Siryet Girma 1,514 words 7 pages Historical Paper Reconstruction: the failure Reconstruction was a failure because African American were still not equal to White Americans. The Emancipation Proclamation was proclaimed in January 1, 1863. It freed more than 3 million slaves in the Confederate states by January 1, 1863, blacks enlisted in the Union Army in large numbers, reaching some 180,000 by war’sRead MoreReconstruction Of The Reconstruction Era1587 Words   |  7 PagesThe Reconstruction Era was known as a time to reconstruct the United States of America by the expansion of governmental power that began in 1865. â€Å"There were two central problems that animated Reconstruction; providing justice for freedmen and facilitating national reconciliation. (A New Birth of Freedom, pg. 1) After the 12 year span, reconstructing the nation succeeded in only a few of the goals that were set out to achieve within those 12 years that it was in progress. The Reconstruction’s intentionsRead MoreEssay On Reconstruction And Reconstruction1191 Words   |  5 PagesReconstruction was a period which took place after the Civil War between 1865-1877, and it was a process by which former states of the Confederacy were â€Å"reconstructed† into the United States. Reconstruction was also a controversial period as the Blacks were not receiving the rights that they were promised due to which the Southerners were against Republicans, also the president, and the Congress did not agree on the same plan for Reconstruction. Reconstruction was a time in which America consistedRead MoreThe Legacy Of Reconstruction And Reconstruction Essay2362 Words   |  10 PagesRecent books on Reconstruction†¦have infused their subjects with drama by focusing on violent confrontations,† Eric Foner notes in the introduction of the updated edition to his 1988 publication Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877. Up until now, Foner’s revisionist historiography of Reconstruction was the only alternati ve offered to the Dunning School’s account of the important historical era. In recent years a neo-revisionist interpretation of Reconstruction has emerged inRead MoreFacial Reconstructions2008 Words   |  9 PagesForensic Facial Reconstructions Samantha McAnally CRMJ430 April 20, 2013 Abstract This paper will focus mainly on the history and the various techniques that forensic facial reconstruction has to offer. It will also go over some problems or an issue that is process has faced over the years. The Daubert Standard will discuss and how facial reconstruction was allowed as evidence thru this standard. I will go over all the periods of time that facial reconstruction was used. ComputerizedRead MoreBreast Reconstruction Procedures For Women1221 Words   |  5 PagesBrickell neighborhood. He performs breast reconstruction procedures for women who have had a mastectomy. With breast reconstruction surgery, Dr. G can provide women with natural-looking, shapely breasts. Types of Breast Reconstruction Procedures Available Near Brickell For some patients, reconstruction can begin during their mastectomy. Other patients may choose to have their breast reconstruction at some point after their mastectomy. Typically, breast reconstruction surgery involves several surgical sessionsRead More Reconstruction Essay932 Words   |  4 Pages Reconstruction took place after the end of the civil war. The reason for reconstruction was to put the union back together and free the slaves once and for all. Reconstruction took three eras to be completed. The first was Lincoln, the second Andrew Johnson, and the third was the Congressional â€Å"hard plan.† The Lincoln era lasted from 1863-1865. On December of 1863 the decree of â€Å"soft plan† was introduced. The â€Å"soft plan† included amnesty for the southerners that took the loyalty oath. It also

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Summary On A Time Travelers Guide - 1132 Words

Chelsea Perkins Survey of Western Culture Dr. Bailey 7 May 2016 A Time-Travelers Guide Fast-forward to the year 2120 and you re the number one scientist in the world developing cutting-edge technology in the fields of genetics as well as time and space travel. Everyone has doubted your efforts up to this point but you know that today will be the day. You re hoping that the plugs and wires will line up just right and when the clock strikes 12:00 AM you ll be on your way to having a glance into the rich history of the Renaissance era dating back 600 plus years. Today will be the day that you travel through time and space to prove every doubt wrong and to prove that we don t know just as much as we think we do. First, let me give you a little bit of background on the Renaissance era and why it was a significant movement for the development of literature, architecture, and art. The Renaissance originated in Italy but then spread to other European countries because of its modern influence and change. It can be attributed to introducing artistic styles that the world had never seen before therefore, its influence spread rapidly. Furthermore, the movements that we’ll be looking at involve the stylistic changes and influences of architecture that occurred from the 15th to 17th centuries. We’ll be interacting with Renaissance sculptors and painters such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, and Andrea Palladio. Furthermore, the clock strikes 12:00 AM and you pull the lever notShow MoreRelatedMax Cabs : A Based Company1153 Words   |  5 Pagesfamilies and business travelers. Both groups will likely demand Max Cabs services. The families will utilize the service because it is convenient and less expensive than if they drove themselves and paid for long-term parking for their car. Max Cabs will easily gain market share by utilizing their competitive advantages that are based on a sophisticated, yet purposeful, incentive system for the drivers. The system incentivizes driver behavior to build new clients, turn one-time clients into long-termRead MoreAmerican Airlines Case Study1220 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿ Contents Part 1: Executive Summary 3 Part 2: Issues Identification 4 Part 3: Environmental Root Cause Analysis 5 Part 4: Alternatives and Options 6 Part 5: Recommendations 8 Part 6: Implementation Plan 9 Part 7: Monitor and Control 10 Part 1: Executive Summary With 1988 operating income of $801 million on a revenue of $8.55 billion, American Airlines, Inc. (American), principal subsidiary of Dallas/Fort Worth-based AMR Corporation, was the largest airline in the United States. At year-endRead MoreHot Air Balloons Research Paper1676 Words   |  7 Pageshot air balloon. Part C: Goes over some the inventions and experiments done with the hot air balloon. Conclusion: The closing summary of the paper. Never having left the ground except by water, made the thought of air travel even scarier (Norgaard 21). Man being scared would bet the reason why a duck, a sheep, and a rooster, would become known as the first air travelers in history. The duck, the sheep and the rooster would complete the first travel in one of the first hot air balloons in historyRead MoreThe Alternative Learning System1623 Words   |  7 Pageseducation for all Filipinos ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM → is a parallel learning system that provides a viable alternative to the existing formal education. It encompasses both the non formal and informal sources of knowledge and skills. In summary, we say: Basic Education = early childhood education (kindergarten) and elementary education (Grades 1-6) and secondary education (1st-4th year) and ALS (for out- -of- school age children, youth adults and those with special needs). AlternativeRead MoreThe Four Season Of Hotel Management898 Words   |  4 Pagesfriendly and efficient service with the finest traditions of international hotel keeping. Therefore, redefining luxury for the modern traveler in the process. The company has been on many top lists including on the â€Å"100 Best Companies to Work For† by Fortune every year since it’s inception in 1998. Ranked #47 in 2015 largely to its low employee turnover rates. At the time young architect and builder Sharp had no plans on entering the hotel industry on a grand scale since it took him years to convinceRead MoreInvestigation Of A Security Clearance For A Position Impacting Our National Security1435 Words   |  6 Pagesthe past 10 years, the background investigation prepares a report of investigation (ROI) and submits the investigative findings to an adjudicator. The adjudicator evaluates the information obtained in the ROI and based on pre-determined adjudicative guides, â€Å"adjudicates† or determines the suitability of an individual to obtain a security clearance. If the background investigation is â€Å"favorably adjudicated†, the individual is eligible to obtain a security clearance; if derogatory information is discoveredRead MoreStrategic Action Plan for Hotels1086 Words   |  4 PagesStrategic Action Plan for Hotel Introduction Hotel managers are concerned with many factors relating to hotel operation and with the economy still being weak and the effects of restrictive legislation on business combined with events many times beyond their control, hotel managers face challenges for development of strategies for successful operation. Among the primary issues faced by Hotel, management is such as talent, technology, sustainability, crisis management, as well as other such challengesRead MoreA Business Plan for and Adventure Recreation Company9286 Words   |  38 Pages 1.2 Mission 2.0 Company Summary 2.1 Company Ownership 2.2 Start-up Summary 2.3 Services and Products 4.0 Market Analysis Summary 4.1 Market Segmentation 4.2Market Segmentation Read MoreBaggage Complaints Essay1410 Words   |  6 PagesCase 2 - Baggage Complaints: Descriptive Statistics and Time Series Plots Baggage Complaints: Descriptive Statistics and Time Series Plots Background Anyone who travels by air knows that occasional problems are inevitable. Flights can be delayed or cancelled due to weather conditions, mechanical problems, or labor strikes, and baggage can be lost, delayed, damaged, or pilfered. Given that many airlines are now charging for bags, issues with baggage are particularly annoying. Baggage problemsRead MoreThe Availability and Use of Screen Reading Technologies for Computer Users Who Are Sight Impaired900 Words   |  4 PagesSummary of Screen Reading Technology Screen reading technology allows a blind/visually impaired or learning disabled person access to information from the computer screen through auditory means. As explained by Neville Clarence Technologies, Ltd: Screen reading software gives the user control over which areas on the screen are to be displayed or spoken and makes use of artificial intelligence to decide what information is to be displayed or spoken automatically. It also gives the user control over

Carolingian Renaissance Essay Example For Students

Carolingian Renaissance Essay The Carolingian Renaissance is a period in the Middle Ages characterized by the revival of scholarship, and tagged with the figure of Charlemagne. After a period of stagnation and certain decadence in the development of intellectual awareness and art which marked the Middle Ages, in the second half of the 8th century there is a new uplift in these fields. Charlemagne brings the greatest scholars of his time to his court, in a desire to revive the level of artistic creation and nourishment of literacy from the time of the ancient Rome. Rome becomes an ideal in the recovery of art, architecture, philosophical writings. Transcriptions are made of ancient scholar works, which are some of the only copies of these works preserved to this day. As a result of a need for extended text on the scarce surface of permanents, a new epistyle called minuscule is developed, which will have become the ground for todays modern epistyle. Gina Fischer thus explains this Carolingian revival: -From an artistic point of view, the characteristic element of the Carolingian Renaissance, is he persistence to reinforce, through the restoration of the Empire, the culture that, sparse and defective, found its resort in desolate monasteries. To rediscover the greatness of Antique was a myth, and, at the same time, an aspiration for a new prestige; still it is a retrieval of immortal virtues and ideas that began to fade and obscure. l The centers of this new scholarship were monasteries. They incorporated scriptorium where the transcriptions were made; the architecture was improved on their trustees, and the interior was used for decorative art development. Still, secular clergy was kept outside of the monasteries, and they were educated in cathedral schools: -Even though cathedral schools became important institutions in ecclesiastical community, very little is known about them in the Carolingian period, and a certain thing is that clericals were generally corrupted, at least in Gaul. Bishops were often laymen and ignorant, they spent their lives on family feuds, in political intrigues, warfare, hunting and other favorite occupations of the half-barbaric nobility. The remarkable ones that could have become intellectual leaders, spent their energy Christianizing pagan lands or reforming Christian hierarchy in those already Christianizes. Therefore their enthusiasm for teaching and writing slowly faded away. This was the reason that both 7th and 8th century in Europe were quite destitute in literary creation and scholarship. There were only a few prominent writers. 2 Carolingian Renaissance By tattooing

Monday, April 20, 2020

Point Of View Essay In The Short Story Through The Tunnel, Doris Lessi

Point of View Essay In the short story "Through the tunnel", Doris Lessing describes the adventure of Jerry, a young English boy trying to swim through an underwater tunnel. Throughout the story, the author uses the third person omniscient point of view to describe the boy's surroundings and to show us both what he and the other characters are thinking and what is happening around them. By using this point of view, the author is able to describe the setting of the story, give a detailed description of the characters, and make the theme visible. By using the third person omniscient point of view, the narrator can give us a detailed and unbiased description of his/her surroundings while still retaining part of the character's view of reality. When the narrator says "It was a wild-looking place, and there was no one there" we are given the mother's view of the boy's beach, which in her opinion is "wild looking". This gives us a clear picture of the setting. Additionally, the sentence "He went out fast over the gleaming sand, over a middle region where rocks lay like discolored monsters under the surface, and then he was in the real sea - a warm sea where irregular cold currents from the deep water shocked his limbs" clearly describes the beach where the boy is swimming and how it is seen by him. With the addition of words like "discoloured monsters" and "real sea" we can tell what the boy's feeling are toward his beach which he considers scary but at the same time challenging. By using the third person omniscient point of view, the narrator is able to render the characters with information related both from direct description and from the other character's revelations. This way, the description remains unbiased, but at the same time coherent with how the various characters see it. For example, after the narrator tells us that "He was an only child, eleven years old. She was a widow. She was determined to be neither possessive nor lacking in devotion.", we are able to understand why the boy is so emotionally attached to his mother and, at the beginning, unwilling to ask her for permission to go to his beach and, later in the story, unwilling to let her know about his adventure through the tunnel. This also explains why the mother let him go without questions, even if she was very worried about him. Also, when the narrator describes the native boys as "big boys - men to Jerry", we realize that although the boys might be only a little older than Jerry, he considers them as men and he tries everything to become like one of them, even going through the long, dark and dangerous underwater tunnel. I believe that if the writer would have used first person point of view, we would only perceive what that single character is experiencing, thus giving us a limited and one-sided view of the world. In this story, the narrator gives us the important clues that lead us to the theme by letting us know what the characters think. For example, when t he Jerry's mother says "Of course he's old enough to be safe without me", we realize that the boy is at a point in his life when he is ready to discover the world by himself. In addition, when his mother thinks "Have I been keeping him too close? He mustn't feel he ought to be with me. I must be careful.", we realize that the author implies that it is wrong to keep him close to her for too long, and both these examples add to the notion that the rite of passage must be undergone without the interference of others. Obviously, this concept wouldn't have been clear without the view of the mother. In addition, Jerry perceives swimming through the underwater tunnel as something that men (the other boys) must accomplish, and that specific action has to be seen as "the rite of passage" in this story. With the third person omniscient point of view, the narrator is able to make the theme clearly visible to the reader, which is that a rite of passage

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Media Crime and Peace

Media Crime and Peace Free Online Research Papers Abstract The relationship between the criminal justice system and the media systems and commentary for quite a while. This relationship may be understood in terms of dependency relations operative between thes massive systems. Neither the media nor the criminal justice system could operate effectively without the other. Criminal Justice system is a resource for the media system as it affords one of the common sources of news and entertainment stories. The scout role of the media is to monitor the environment for actual and potential threats to individual and collective welfare also it’s vital to afford a powerful way for the media to attach their audiences. One must update their understanding and ability to orient themselves to the environments in which they act. Media crime stories be it news, entertainment, genre, instruct and update one’s understanding of issues. Commercial media organizations translate this relationship with their audience into the profit that flows from adv ertisers. Media has a capacity to reach the criminal justice system and all of its attendant, judicial and law enforcement organizations. Information is a key factor in sustenance of political, economic and social growth. However, it has sometimes been exploited negatively resulting in poor aspects of community governance. The media’s impact on the escalation of crime or even conflict is more widely recognized than its impact on peace building. History has over the years shown that the media can incite the people towards violence. For the criminal justice system to operate effectively it’s paramount that it has authority that device from people’s willingness to grant its legitimacy, media storytelling can hugely affect this process. Allocation of few resources to the criminal justice system also depends to the criminal justice system also depends upon success in the struggles get â€Å"it’s† story positively framed and disseminated widely to media audiences. Macro dependency relations serve as context for examination of specific aspects of media, criminal justice, public attitudes towards specific cases, including the attitudes of potential and actual jurors has been another focus. The right of journalists to protect sources by not disclosing their names has been under scrutiny from time to time. While focusing on the role of the media in crime and peace,. This paper seeks to show the relationship between the media and rise in crime, illustrate how the same media can be used proactively to ensure peace especially in the continent of Africa as well as argue that Africa is yet to establish proper control devices in the regulation of the ever expanding media avenue Introduction â€Å"Violence is as old as old as human beings. It started as a family affair, according to the Bible; Cain killed his brother Abel. This does not mean, however that violence is a natural way of solving conflicts. Cain has not become a hero in the history of mankind. Quite the contrary. But in the media and entertainment industry of today, violence seems tto be the number one formula for creating a hero and it is no longer a family affair; it is a world-family affair.† (Lund, 1996) Examining the role of the media in crime and peace basically entails studying the controversies that have emerged around the media and its societal impacts. The role of the mass media in conflicts is often recognized and frequently the media is charged with creating the conflicts. More often than not the media is charged and accused of â€Å"sensationalizing† and blowing â€Å"things out of proportion † or â€Å"covering up† and â€Å"not paying attention to all sides of a controversy† (Gerald, 1963: Rivers and Schramm, 1969) The media and rise in crime In traditional societies children basically were acculturated by studying the behavior patterns of the people their associates who comprised basically members of their immediate families. Communities back then were in clusters of limited villages and therefore it was easier for parents to track the development of their children’s characters and any negative trait was promptly dealt with. With the rapid growth of mass media however, the â€Å"resource centers† from which children pick up character have been multiplied tremendously. Young children everywhere are fast becoming heavy-TV viewers. Social conflict is a central component in community life as well as social change and the media cannot be blamed for using it as the principal material for the content it sells out there. The question is therefore the extent to which media resources contribute to the development and control of conflict and the way they help shape the public’s definition of the issue. Studies show that exposure to heavy doses of television violence increases the likelihood of aggressive behavior, particularly in boys. Boys tend to identify with the male characters who are strong and aggressive while girls tend to identify with the victims. Television tends to present violence in unrealistic, misleading and sometimes glorified ways. Fictional programming often presents violence as all persuasive, legitimate and effective. Whenever you turn on your television you are immediately confronted with aggression. The major weak assumption that the media providers have is that young children can distinguish between reality and fiction. Young viewers can be drawn into the fantasy that violence has no consequence. Even news programs and documentaries can distort violence, selectively exaggerating and sensationalizing events. Movies, drama and other programs with violent themes that have flooded our televisions have had a negative impact on character formation of our youth with most ending as delinquents. It then isn’t strange that commando-like crimes are being executed in our estates and on the streets with military precision courtesy or the lessons taken from the block busters. Radio as an aspect of the media has also been linked to major aggression the world over. Radio actually as opposed to television has a direct involvement in crime as a consequent of incitement remarks over the air. For example, Rwanda’s radio RTLM called its audience in 1994 to pick up machetes and take to the streets to kill what they called â€Å"the cockroaches† in what ended up to be the biggest genocide incidence in the African continent and the world as well. Closer home, local fm stations incited communities to rise against each other in the run p to the December 2007 general elections. On the other hand, mainstream television stations took hard-line stances in the politics of the day. This Balkanized the country and played a major role in escalating the post election violence that ensued. It is a sad fact that as far as the media business is concerned, the only rule that applies is the law of the market in that in that what makes profit is what is produced and distributed. Practically all sectors of the media have been marred with allegations of encouraging violence, even the print media. Cohen, S.(1975 concludes that crime stories are directed to a group of people. Such people may be victims, criminals or the decision makers. He goes ahead to suggest that crime stories attract readers due to use of banner headlines and photographs especially in the first section of the newspaper. He concludes that doing so is tantamount to promoting criminal behavior. Supporters of Cohen’s views include Payne, David E. and Kay P.P (1970) who conclude that in 1970 people in Detroit, U.S.A commited crime to gain publicity. This was illustrated by Kimbali who had earlier found out that commitment of crime had gone down whenever there was a newspaper strike. Of even greater importance is the issue of interpretation of crime stories. There those who will take those stories at literal level and others who will take them metaphorically, depending on one’s social and educational background. What reaction is expected from the audience? This question is significant because of the awareness that arises after reading about crime. Could it be that reporters in the media are setting an agenda by their insistence on crime stories? In their paper â€Å"crime coverage in print media†, Mundara J.N and Kassanani have quoted Regina Ingolo, a probation officer who thought that coverage of the crime had nothing to do without coverage of the crime commitment. Her argument that most of the criminals she interacted with were semi-illiterate or too poor to afford a newspaper. The internet media albeit unintentionally has aided organization and coordination of criminal activities and terrorism around the globe. The swift organization and coordination of the Al Qaeda activities across the world attests to this. What with a network that connects terrorist cells from the valleys of the Afghan mountains to the suburbs of Washington D.C and all other major cities of the world to the ones in the streets of Somalia and the caves of Malindi. This lot has only relied on their experience and training in terrorist warfare it has benefited a great deal from the modern information and communication technologies in the aspects of organization ant coordination. Back in Kenya, the new and emerging media (internet, mobile phones) aided the planning and execution of what has now come to be simply referred as the post-election violence. It was via phone calls, short cell phone messages (sms) and the internet gangs that terrorized in the Rift valley were remotely organized and coordinated by their political masters in the height of the violence. It is also possible that the money that was paid out to these gangs could have been transferred b the Safaricom’s, M-Pesa, money transfer program. Mobile phones and the internet have also aided criminals to avoid apprehension. The Mungiki and other terror gangs have been able to attack swiftly and precisely. Police roadblocks are almost losing meaning courtesy of the efficiency in communication as accorded by the mobile phones. Effect of media violence 1. Desensitization effect Over time repeated exposure to media violence leads to perception of any act of violence being viewed as be less shocking and less severe than it actually is. 2. The fear effect. Heavy viewers of media and television violence begin to identify with the victims and view the world as a much scarier place. 3. The Aggressor Effect This is especially among growing boys who want to relate with the tough and aggressive hero characters they see from films . Press releases One way through which public relations practitioners, organizations and individuals achieve their objectives by way of issuing press releases are supposed to promote positive relations between organizations, leaders and the public(Dr. L.Odhiambo,1998) Press releases can be used positively to warn the public of impending problems. This will ensure that the public responds proactively in taking measures that will safeguard their own goodwill. Press releases can also be used to explain why governments took certain measures or made some changes in their usual activities. This helps in development of better mutual relations between the government and the general public. However, in Africa press releases have come to be regarded as methods of damage of damage control in that government statements are only made in reaction to a perceived failure of the government. In most cases, they actually come out as refutatins and denial \s mote than anything else. â€Å"many of those who issue press releasees appear like people who wait until their homes catch fire before they try to save the structures even when there was earlierindications of firre building up†(Odhiambo,Chemjor;1998) These releases are always based on useless even hollow facts and in most circumstances the issuer(government spokesman)tends to cover up the truth by trying to elaborately present minor gains that have been made. Also as a cover up, most of the African governments tend to lay legal threats o perceived enemies of the state who mostly tend to be nothing more than critics. These vain attempts at hiding the trg\uth obviously have a major counter productive effect as the public tends to alienate the government after reading the insincerity in the press releases. Steps that can help reduce crime instigated by the media 1.Self regulation-In April 1994, international television managers attended a roundtable on non-violence. Unanimous recommendations were made in the establishment of regulatory frameworks among the private and public broadcasters. 2.limiting commercial pressures. Maintenance of proper social and artistic standards should be ensured if screen violence is to be curbed. Public broadcasting needs strengthening financially and techinically to improve national home-grown program output and providing viewers and listeners with a wider range of quality choices 3. media education The public under most circumstances has the option window when it comes to choosing what to read, listen to or watch. An educated citizenr can do much to reduce screen violence within a democratic society..childre should be educated in the framework of the beliefs of their parents until the age of emancipation. Parents should ensure dialogue with their children about programmes they can watch. Theis will help develop in the children a critical capacity towards the television and most recently the internet so that they don’t become passive spectators. ROLE OF MEDIA AND INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS IN PROMOTING PEACE. The belief that there would be mighty peace if the rapidly growing Information Communication Technology (ICT) and media were embraced fully is not far fetched. Convergence of these two industries and their deployment in war torn areas indicate hope of mediating not only for fragile but a permanent peace deal. This part of the paper refuses to walk the academic path but chooses to reside in the home of reality in exploring the role of media in building a peaceful world. . Peacemakers, scholars, and keen observers have rendered a legion of definitions and those yearning for peace; the likes of Democratic Republic of Congo, residents of Darfur, and The ugly scenes in Iraq and Afghanistan are just few but many of the examples this section of the paper will work with. Peace is a state of harmony, freedom from war or violence depicted by respect, justice and goodwill and friendship. Borrowing examples from current events around the world we shall demonstrate how the media has greatly contributed to the establishing and maintenance of peace systems. Starting with the mobile and computer technologies that have taken the world by storm. The former has opened up communications in the regions that used to have a fixed line. This has brought warring factions together. Taking communications to these nations struggling to overcome civil wars, coups, and variety of natural disasters. Negotiations have been championed just through mobile telephony. Peacemakers can now just write short-messages to warring sides where it could have been impossible to bring the two sides at a roundtable for talks. This was clealy evident in the recent violence that marred the country at the beginning of the year 2008. At some point groups targeting human interest and rights sent around text messages calling for promotion of peace. Internet services have now been devised where warring sides can easily hold online video conferencing without necessarily having to converge at one place, which is costly and sometimes risky. This has enabled linking of the warring sides hence expanding access to communication to increase mediation and transform the hostile sides, instilling understanding and fair justice, as the two sides have a chance to listen to each other. . Television and radio for instance have been used to champion peace talks through organising peace talk shows trying to disseminate to people the real issues to foster peace restoration in highly volatile regions like Darfur, Iraq and Afghanistan. The government for example may use the various elements of media in relaying the messages of peace to the warring communities. Media houses on the other hand set aside airtime for special programmes to orchestrate peace. Reaching peace message to a large populace since Radio and TV commands a wider audience. Media’s extensive coverage of youths activities gives it an agenda like in Kenya the Tegla Lourope’s events branded ‘running for peace’ is given wide coverage hence many youths are attracted to participate making them busy hence conceptualising the need for peace. Organising youth’s forums and musical shows like in low settlement areas and opening up community based programmes run by young people where they raise their problems and solutions projected this eliminates violence as issues. As problems and their solutions are identified and solved before they grow out of hand. Media for long acts as a link to all other sectors hence called the 4th estate from Executive, Judiciary, and the Legislative. It explains all about these arms of government where the 4th estate plays an integral role. Media enhances cohesive implementations of laws and order. It is also passes on the issues and articulating them to the people. This upholds understanding. The media has of late enabled quick actions in conflict resolutions as everyone is brought to attention about the conflict. Going by the post-election violence were it not for the media we may be still burning. Thanks for the media for blowing up the whole truth to the world that brought Koffi Anan to our rescue. This elsewhere enables quick deployment of soldiers to war torn zones like the Darfur and Iraq case. This helps tone down the impact of attacks before they grow out of proportions. Impartial reporting by media enables eliminates prejudice between the warring sides and the need for peace is instilled and pursued. The Al-Jazeera coverage of the Middle East has promoted coetaneous communication between peacekeepers and the warring factions. Here Al-Jazeera acts as an agent of conflict resolution. The media acts as a watchdog in society. It voices poverty, economic imbalance, corruption, nepotism, and favourism, lack of amenities key causes of instability that mostly ends up fuelling insurgency. As an agent for peace, media voices the people’s aspirations and grievances making perpetrators of ills and warmongers to come round to people’s cries without necessarily getting up in arms. This has brought together the people and the ruling elites even where conflicts have ensued. The trust and confidences injected in the systems ensures sincerity, openness and transparency a channel through which negotiations for peace and what should be done are initiated and pursued. Media has a collective responsibility of promoting cultural diversity and exchange. This leads to appreciation of others’ cultures and identifying the need for mutual co-existence between cultures. This has strengthened social ties taming prejudices across communities. Peace is not a luxury but a need for the people. So the media should be used as a conflict resolution agent not as a source of atrocity and for fanning wars. The Rwandan (1994 Genocide) case is still fresh in our minds and the alleged vernacular fm radio stations during the post election violence at the start of the year. The Hutus and Tutsi’s news was commentated as a football match and see what happened-thousands were killed in Rwanda. The Kenyan case is not different the vernacular fm stations hosted shows and call in forums that encouraged ethnicity-where some tribes were perceived to be the best while the others termed thieves who should not stay in our midst. See what happened! Thousands lost lives while many were uprooted from their homes. Dissemination of events in such scenarios should not be done as our TV football commentator does; this pits the sides against each other. The media should not mention the winning side or the losing one in war this might score points and fuel the conflict further. As a third party media and ICT should brighten the prospects of resolutions but not act as reasons for deadlocks. They should be able to bring the conflicting parties to negotiation table. They should be able to talk and soften stands of hardliners and make them willing to end stalemates. The convergence of these industries and their deployment in war torn zones should indicate hope not only for a fragile peace deal but also for a lasting one. They should act as bridge for settling, arbitrating, mediating, and reconciling, bargaining, negotiating, peacekeeping and peacemaking tools to contain reduce and finally solve conflicts for stability to prevail. the roless and expectations of the media in building a peaceful world cannot be underestimated. Everything boils down to softening and cooling down the war heated environments. Their main objective collectively being to grease the conflicting sides. Peace has remained across cutting issue in the world but can only be achieved by embracing ICT and media to the fullest. Research Papers on Media Crime and PeaceCapital PunishmentRelationship between Media Coverage and Social andEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenThe Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseAnalysis Of A Cosmetics AdvertisementPETSTEL analysis of IndiaComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoBook Review on The Autobiography of Malcolm XThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever Product

Friday, February 28, 2020

The Validity of Perception Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The Validity of Perception - Essay Example This is because perceptions that are deep habitually draw attention. Organization of what people perceive is paramount in the creation of reality. This is because the selected information should be arranged in a way which is meaningful so as to make sense to the world. Interpretation and negotiations are necessary to realize a reality in what people perceive. In regard to the video under scrutiny by Scott, the report considers a murder that took place in Lynwood, California where a father was advising the kids on how to get home and do their homework instead of horsing around. A car appeared, and the father got shot from the passenger sit of the approaching vehicle. Investigation kicked off, and the first suspect, Francisco Carrillo who lived in the neighborhood was to answer murder charges. According to the kids in the video by Scott, the person appearing in the photo looked similar to the person who had shot their father from the vehicle, which ironically was moving too fast to ide ntify the people who were in the vehicle. The suspect underwent conviction and sentenced to life imprisonment, just because the kids had said that the person was the one who shot their father. In the investigation, no guns are in the area, the vehicle which the shooter uses to stretch his arm also goes missing. This also applies to the driver who drove the vehicle that was in use by the shooter. Discussion The reading according to Adler, Ronald, Lawrence, and Russell (42) is in a rhetorical condition whereby, the author uses rhetorical question to bring out the argument in the case. Some of the rhetorical questions include; â€Å"so what is wrong?† this question makes the reader continue reading and answer the question. This structure of using rhetorical questions is necessary to make sure that the reader can relate the events in the case. This is because a rhetorical question does not have an exact answer; rather the author uses the questions to help the reader perceive the seriousness. A question like â€Å"Mr. Carrillo’s alibi?† makes the reader what to know more about the person. The author does not answer the question; rather the author leaves the readers to answer for themselves. This writing style helps to send the message in the reading since the reader plays a significant role in filling the blanks left by the rhetorical questions. Apart from the use of rhetorical questions, there is the use of rhetorical figures such as Folsom Prison to explain the lock up situation of the suspected shooter since the evidence brought before the judge is not concrete enough to put the suspect to prison. Perception The perception is a process which affects the communication with others according to the reading. In the earlier introduction regarding to perception, there are two define classes, the first order and second order. Influence on perception Perception, which involves the selection, organization, interpretation and negotiation of informatio n, is under the influence of many factors. Psychological influences in regard to the study works of Adler, Ronald, Lawrence, and Russell (41) arise from the physical environment and the difference of one’s body to that of another person. Interpersonal relationships arise from the differences in the way people receive sensory information. Developmental differences shape perceptions since age gives allowance for a vast scope and much experience. The relation

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Political science Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Political science - Essay Example Firstly, and perhaps most importantly, the reader should come to a full and complete understanding and appreciation for the fact that poaching in and of itself should not be held as the highest representation of the Democratic process. For instance, there are many highly undemocratic nations around the world to participate in the voting. For instance, history is replete with examples of nations that it held fraudulent elections as a means of seeking to convince the respective stakeholders within their societies that their governments is ultimately legitimate. Within such a function, the voting process in and of itself cannot and should not be understood to be defined as the true lifeblood of a democracy (Lever 225). Rather, voting is merely an exhibition of the good faith that the stakeholders within society understand their role with relation to the governing authority. For instance, although the United States might wish to believe that it exhibits the highest level of democracy wit hin the world, the fact of the matter is quite the contrary. Ultimately, only two choices are given with regards to the political party affiliation that the candidates have to offer. Naturally, there is also the political affiliation of independent; however this is rarely used. Whereas compared to the other nations in the world, a litany of political parties help to define the way in which key interests of the populace are illustrated, the United States system only allows for choice between two political parties. In such a way, the level and extent to which voting within such a two-party/limited system serves to be the lifeblood of democracy ultimately comes under a high level of scrutiny (Coley 6). Naturally, voting within such a context is necessarily cheapened as compared to voting within a context where greater level of choice exists. Ultimately, the point that should most be understood within the preceding analysis is with regards to the fact the process of voting in and of its elf does not guarantee democracy anymore than evidence of political opposition disproves the evidence of a dictatorship. More importantly, with respect to the American system of governance, the main objective that this author has is with regards to the level and extent of the knowledge base that the voters are bringing to the election cycles. Although it is oftentimes been the case that scholars have looked down upon the average voter as misinformed and ultimately provincial, statistics in recent years have underscored the fact that the American voting populace is becoming increasingly clueless with regards to both the domestic political situation and the global realities that define the world in which we live. Within such an understanding, the process of voting itself must be understood to be of secondary or even tertiary importance as compared to the level of information and for knowledge that the voter himself/herself is able to exhibit with regards to the many issues that inform different elections that take place within a democracy. Whereas it is not the purpose of this analysis to advocate any type of a poll tax or regression into many of the previously practiced